Hockey003Sled hockey had its beginning in the early 1960s when some enterprising athletes at a physical rehabilitation center in Sweden wanted to play the game. The men modified a metal frame sled with two regular-sized ice hockey skate blades that allowed the puck to pass underneath. Their hockey sticks were round poles with bike handles.

The growth of the sport was slow to develop but by 1969, Stockholm had a five-team league that included both disabled and able-bodied players. Ice sled hockey was first demonstrated at the Paralympic Winter Games in Sweden in 1976, and then again at the 1988 Innsbruck Paralympics. It became an official event at the 1994 Lillehammer Paralympics.

“There have been such huge advances in player skill and advances in equipment that the game of sled hockey from the 1990s and the game today is totally unrecognizable,” Carr said.

What is Sled Hockey?

Sled hockey (sledge hockey in Canada and Europe) is a sit-down version of ice hockey for players whose disability prevents them from playing stand-up hockey.

How Is It Played?

There is little difference in sled hockey and stand-up hockey. The goal is still to put the puck in the net. Sled hockey players use their arms to power themselves around the ice and their hips to move side-to-side. There are six players for each team – three forwards, two defensemen, and a goalie. Substitutes may be made when play is stopped, or on the fly. Previously, periods were 15 minutes in length, but now are increased to 20 minutes, the same as stand-up hockey. Play is on a regulation sized ice rink with standard size nets and puck. Checking and high-speed slapshots are common features of the sport. Players and spectators alike experience the same thrills as stand-up hockey. Two able-bodied referees call the game.

Who Can Play?

Hockey002Sled hockey is played by a wide range of players with a variety of mobility limitations: amputees, spinal cord injuries, spina bifida, along with anyone who has a permanent disability that limits participation in Hockey002stand up hockey. In addition, with the exception of the highest level of competition, non-disabled players are encouraged to participate.

“To play sled hockey, the only requirement is that you have a disability that prohibits you from playing stand up. That makes it very broad,” said Tom Carr, CTRS/L, assistant director of outreach and athletics, at Northeast Passage.

Northeast Passage, DSUSA’s Chapter in New Hampshire, has a thriving sled hockey program that attracts as many as 200 participants throughout the winter season. “As a team sport, it’s one of the fastest growing,” Carr said.

Part of its appeal is that there is little difference between sled hockey and stand up hockey in how the game is played. “It’s fast-paced and a full contact sport. The main difference is it’s played on a sled,” he said.

Sled hockey is a great form of exercise and fitness. It increases strength and coordination and also conditions the upper body. The balance used to propel, play the puck, and turn and stop gives arms, back and abdominal muscles a workout. Those who play regularly quickly notice an increase in overall strength and balance both on and off the ice.

What Equipment Is Needed?

NEP-Sled-Hockey-2Sleds are usually made of light-gauge aluminum, consisting of a customized bucket to sit in. A backrest can be used depending on the ability of the athlete. A frame supports the bucket, legs and feet, and is mounted on two skate blades attached under the bucket. Straps keep the player secure in the sled.

Athletes with double lower-limb loss tend to have an advantage here, since they can use shorter sleds with no leg supports, resulting in a smaller turn radius.

Instead of one hockey stick, players use two for propulsion, passing and shooting. The sticks may be up to 100 cm long (roughly 3 feet) but are usually between 75-95 cm and can be wood, aluminum, or composite materials. The sticks have metal picks on one end for players to propel themselves. Those with limited grip can have sticks secured to their hands allowing them to participate.

Players are outfitted with a hockey helmet with face mask, gloves, and body protection including shoulder pads, shin guards, elbow pads, neck guard, and hockey gloves.

Goalies wear basically the same equipment but do make modifications to the glove; metal picks are attached to the backside allowing the goalie to maneuver.

Sled hockey has a relatively small number of equipment suppliers to provide the sleds, sticks and picks that are unique to sled hockey. All other hockey equipment that is necessary such as helmets, gloves, etc. can be bought from any other stand-up hockey equipment supplier.

USA Hockey Sled Lending Program

Hockey006USA Disabled Hockey has a program called “One Kid…One Sled…One Shot…A Hockey Player for Life!” that is designed to help bring new players into the sport of sled hockey by initiating a loaner sled program for rinks and organizations who want to conduct learn-to-play clinics but are prevented from doing so due to the lack of sleds and sticks needed to conduct such introductory clinics. Sleds and sticks are shipped directly to the rink conducting the clinic three days prior. You are then required to ship the sleds back within three days after the conclusion of the clinic. All shipping charges will be paid by USA Hockey. Applications can be found on the USA Hockey website.

USA Hockey is the national governing body for sled hockey in the United States.

The popularity of sled hockey is on the rise.

Many DSUSA chapters offer sled hockey opportunities, as do other independent clubs across the country. The sport received a huge boost when USA Hockey took over as the national governing body foHockey006r sled hockey and sled hockey programs. For the past 10 years, USA Hockey-sponsored sled hockey programs have sprung up across the U. S., with the national team selected by the organization. Also fueling interest in the sport is the National Hockey League (NHL), which hosted the first USA Hockey Sled Classic in Littleton, Colo., and Denver this past October. Four teams made up of 46 players, many on current and recent U.S. national team rosters, played under their NHL affiliate’s jersey – Colorado Avalanche, Chicago Blackhawks, Philadelphia Flyers, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Organizers hope to ultimately have all 32 NHL teams represented in future Sled Classics. And let’s not forget the U.S. Sled Hockey team which won gold in the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver. Amputee goalie Steve Cash, who didn’t allow a single goal in five games, won an ESPN ESPY award for Best Male Athlete with a Disability.

Athlete development at UNH

NEP-Sled-Hockey-3Northeast Passage is in partnership with the University of New Hampshire to offer winter sport athletes an opportunity to become student athletes. “UNH recruits, trains and offers scholarship opportunities to disabled student athletes,” Carr said. “These athletes train every day and have access to the same facilities and coaching as their non-disabled NCAA counterparts. This combined with Northeast Passage’s Paralympic Sport Club status allows these same athletes the opportunity to work with and mentor the next generation of sled hockey players.”

In addition to sled hockey, UNH offers opportunities in alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, biathlon, and cycling. Recruits must demonstrate the academic ability to attain admission to the University of New Hampshire and be currently competing at a national or international level OR be at the top tier of regional competition with potential and desire to advance. Competitive scholarships are available.

One of Northeast Passage/UNH’s student athletes is Taylor Chace, from Hampton Falls, N.H., a member of the Vancouver gold medal winning sled hockey team. Chace also was a member of the 2006 Paralympic team that won bronze in Torino and is the current captain of the U.S. National Team.

The Northeast Passage sled hockey team competes in a competitive adult league (the Northeast Sled Hockey League). The league is made up of teams of men and women who participate in league play and travel nationally and internationally for tournaments. Northeast Passage’s team practice sessions are intense, sometimes multiple times weekly. “They also need a commitment to off-ice fitness,” said Carr.

“There have been such huge advances in player skill and advances in equipment that the game of sled hockey from the 1990s and the game today is totally unrecognizable.”

Tom Carr, CTRS/L, assistant director of outreach and athletics, at Northeast Passage.

NEP-Sled-Hockey-5Want To Find a Team? Contact These Chapters


  • Adaptive Adventures
    Joel Berman
    (303) 679-2770
  • Bay Area Outreach & Recreation Program
    Berkeley, Calif.
    Rick Smith
    (510) 849-4663
  • Bridge II Sports
    Durham, N.C.
    Ashley Thomas
    (866) 880-2742NEP Sled Hockey 2
  • Challenge Alaska
    Anchorage, Ala.
    Jeff Dick, CTRS
    (907) 344-7270
  • Courage Kenney Rehabilitation Institute
    Twin Cities area, Minn.
    JR Mamea
    (763) 520-0558
  • Disabled Athlete Sports Association
    St. Peters, Mo.
    Kelly Behlmann
    (636) 477-0716
  • Eagle Mount Great Falls
    Great Falls, Mont.
    Jill Van Son
    (406) 454-1449
  • Great Lakes Adaptive Sports Association (GLASA)
    Lake Forest, Ill.
    Cindy Housner
    (847) 283-0908
  • Higher Ground Sun Valley
    Ketchum, Idaho
    Rich Cardillo
    (208) 726-9298 ext 109
  • National Ability Center
    Park City, Utah
    Ellen Adams
    (435) 200-0995
  • Northeast Disabled Athletic Association
    Burlington, Vt.
    Patrick Standen
    (802) 862-6322
  • Northeast Passage
    Durham, N.H.
    Jill Gravink
    (603) 862-0070
  • Pennsylvania Center
    for Adapted Sports
    Jeff McGinnis
    (215) 765-5118
  • Sports Association
    of Gaylord Hospital
    Wallingford, Conn.
    Katie Joly
    (203) 284-2772
    Rensselaer, N.Y.
    Mary Ellen Whitney
    (518) 598-1279
  • Turnstone
    Fort Wayne, Ind.
    Tina Acosta
    (260) 483-2100

Find Teams Outside of the Disabled Sports USA Chapter Network

Sled Hockey Suppliers